- frx of middle 1/3 (group I):
- most common clavicular frx in both adults and children (80%);
- frx usually occur in mid third region & have upward displacement of medial frag produced by sternocleidomastoid muscle.
- lateral fragment is pulled downward by wt of limb;
- frx of distal 1/3 (group II)
- account for 10-15% of clavicle frx;
- minimal displacement (type I)
- frx medial to CC ligaments (type II)
- articular surface fractures (type III)
- distal clavicle fractures may have a high incidence of non union but most of these are asymptomatic, and of these only a small number will be severe enough to require surgery;
- frx of medial 1/3 (group III):
- account for 5% of clavicular frx;
- Fractures of the medial end of the clavicle.
Wheeless' Textbook of Orthopaedics