Synonyms and related keywords: skeletal dysplasia, disproportional short stature, short stature, dwarfism, osteochondrodysplasias, thanatophoric dysplasia, achondroplasia, osteogenesis imperfecta, achondrogenesis, chondrodysplasia punctata, homozygous achondroplasia, chondrodysplasia punctata, camptomelic dysplasia, congenital lethal hypophosphatasia, perinatal lethal type of osteogenesis imperfecta, short-rib polydactyly syndromes, hypochondroplasia, rhizomelic type of chondrodysplasia punctata, Jansen-type metaphyseal dysplasia, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita, atelosteogenesis, diastrophic dysplasia, congenital short femur, Langer-type mesomelic dysplasia, Nievergelt-type mesomelic dysplasia, Robinow syndrome, Reinhardt syndrome, acrodysostosis, peripheral dysostosis, Kniest dysplasia, fibrochondrogenesis, Roberts syndrome, acromesomelic dysplasia, micromelia, Morquio syndrome, Kniest syndrome, metatrophic dysplasia, spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia
Author: Harold Chen, MD, MS, FAAP, FACMG, Chief, Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Perinatal Genetics, Louisiana State University Medical Center
Dwarfism is a commonly used term for disproportionately short stature, although a more medically appropriate term for this disorder is skeletal dysplasia. Short stature is defined as height that is 3 or more standard deviations below the mean height for age. If short stature is proportional, the condition may be due to endocrine or metabolic disorders or chromosomal or nonskeletal dysplasia genetic defects.
In general, patients with disproportionately short stature have skeletal dysplasia (osteochondrodysplasia). Skeletal dysplasias are a heterogeneous group of more than 200 disorders characterized by abnormalities of cartilage and bone growth resulting in abnormal shape and size of the skeleton and disproportion of the long bones, spine, and head.