Hip fractures are classified as intracapsular, which includes femoral head and neck fractures, or extracapsular, which includes trochanteric, intertrochanteric, and subtrochanteric fractures. The location of the fracture and the amount of angulation and comminution play integral roles in the overall morbidity of the patient, as does the preexisting physical condition of the individual. Fractures of the proximal femur are extremely rare in young athletes and are usually caused by high-energy motor vehicle accidents or significant trauma during athletic activity. Other causes may be an underlying disease process such as Gaucher disease, fibrous dysplasia, or bone cyst.
Identification and initiation of treatment is imperative in attempts to avoid complications, such as avascular necrosis (AVN). AVN is more common in patients in the pediatric and adolescent age groups. This outcome is due to the precarious nature of the blood supply to the subchondral region of the femoral head, which does not stabilize until years after skeletal maturity, after which collateral flow develops.
Synonyms and related keywords:
femoral neck fracture, intracapsular hip fracture, hip stress fracture, femoral neck stress fracture, femoral stress fracture, Garden classification, Colonna classification, Evan classification, broken hip, fractured hip, cracked hip
Bhatti & Ertl 2005 Updated 2009