Although upper extremity vascular disorders are less common than lower extremity disorders, upper extremity vascular disorders affect approximately 10% of the population. Causes of vascular compromise include acute trauma; chronic conditions, such as repetitive microtrauma; and systemic diseases involving metabolic processes, autoimmune processes, or both. General symptoms following vascular compromise include dysesthesias, paresthesias, pallor, cold intolerance, and ulceration that is associated with necrosis. The vascular system plays the critical role of delivering nutrients and clearing metabolic waste products from peripheral tissues, as well as maintaining systemic core temperature. Vascular flow is controlled by various processes, including vessel anatomy; vascular tone, which is controlled by neuroendocrine hormones along with autonomic nervous influence; and end-organ metabolic requirements. Unfortunately, vascular competence can often become compromised, leading to various disease pathologies.
Synonyms and related keywords: vascular disorders, vascular compromise, vasospastic disorders, vascular insufficiency, hypothenar hammer syndrome, chronic vascular occlusive disease, thoracic outlet syndrome, embolism, Raynaud disease, Raynaud's disease, Raynaud syndrome, Raynaud's syndrome, Raynaud phenomenon, Raynaud's phenomenon, peripheral vasculitis, Wegener granulomatosis, Wegener's granulomatosis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, Takayasu vasculitis, Buerger disease, Buerger's disease, thromboangiitis obliterans, giant cell arteritis, aneurysm, pseudoaneurysm, CREST syndrome
Mowlavi & Wilhelmi 2007